We must remember that no other surface in a building takes more abuse than floors, regardless of the type of building, be it industrial or commercial. While a bare concrete floor can withstand tremendous weight and pressure, it is relatively porous and susceptibility to significant damage when left untreated or uncoated. If exposed to regular foot traffic or the demands of a commercial environment, concrete will readily absorb dirt, chemicals, oils and other spillages. This often results in stains, cracks and abrasions that can make the floor impossible to clean and unattractive in appearance. Hence all concrete floors need some sort of protection regardless of where they are located. Over the last few years, the protection of concrete floors has gone from essentially nothing to a fairly sophisticated process of some type of protective coating or surfacing. The main purpose is to provide protection to the slab from deterioration or contamination or to provide some added benefits such as aesthetics, wear, non skid, chemical resistance, ease of maintenance and different other properties. How to choose the protective material for concrete floor in different conditions?
Whether you are constructing a new concrete floor or revamping an old one, there are different coatings you can choose to finish the project. We are focusing on coatings that are bonded directly to the surface and offer long term protection and may or may not have some aesthetic value.
Typical coatings that are mostly used for concrete floors include polyurethane & epoxy.
Polyurethane (PU) flooring has some added advantages over epoxy flooring which are as follows.
a) Flexible in nature
b) UV resistant
d) Slip resistant
e) Abrasion resistant
f) Scratch resistant
g) Higher temperature resistant
Fairmate has the following products in PU flooring category
01. FAIRSCREED PUSL HIGH BUILD
It is self leveling underlayment of thickness 2mm to 5mm for PU flooring which is having the following advantages.
• Good leveling properties
• Solvent free
• Fast & easy application
• Suitable Undercoat screed for variety of PU top coats
• Good chemical resistance
• Excellent adhesion property to concrete
02. SAFECORE PU
It is PU self leveling of thickness up to 0.500 mm
It has the following advantages
• Available in attractive & pleasant RAL colours
• Excellent chemical resistance
• Easily applied by brush or roller
• Excellent protective properties
• Good resistance to abrasion
• Non dusting & totally seal the concrete surface preventing dusting
• Resistance to thermal shocks
CEMENTITIOUS, SEAMLESS, SELF SMOOTHING, FAST DRYING, THIN SECTION FLOORING SYSTEM
FAIRTOP FAST FLOOR MICRO is a pre-blending compound having selected cements, hard wearing graded aggregates modified with special polymers and flow agents. It is supplied as a dry powder which requires only the addition of water to produce a self-smoothing, free flowing material.
• Achieves exceptional drying and curing times while at the same time delivering a strong level platform.
• Suitable for repairs of old floors and toppings for new floor.
• Thermal expansion properties similar to concrete.
• Suitable for thickness’ ranging from 1 to 2 mm.
• Impervious to liquids but permeable to water vapor.
• Provides Hygienic, aesthetic, non-porous and a dust free floor.
• Dimensionally stable and can be installed in a large area.
• Impact and vibration resistant
• Non-shrinking & anti skid
• Long life &Maintenance free
• Facilitates easy cleaning
• Easy, simple and economical in application
FAIRTOP FAST FLOOR MICRO is suitable for use in Industrial ware houses, factories, & suitable for use in schools and hospitals, commercial buildings, up grading and refurbishing of existing internal concrete slabs. It can also be suitable for use in car parking and light to medium engineering operations.
The preparation of the concrete is of vital importance for the effective use of this product. Concrete must be firm, hard and free from old coatings, concrete laitance and any contaminants which may impair adhesion. The concrete must have a profiled textured surface, which can be achieved by captive shot blasting, grinding or milling. For areas, which are contaminated by oil and grease, HCA (Hot compressed air) treatment may be
required. All dust and debris must be vacuumed away to leave a clean and dust free surface.
Priming is required and undertaken with FAIRCRETE SB(L) – an acrylic primer. Apply two coats of primer by roller, brush or spray. Apply the primer to the prepared surface and allow drying. (Normally overnight). For the second coat, dilute one part FAIRCRETE SB(L) to three parts water and apply to the previous coat. Allow to become touch dry before application of FAIRTOP FAST FLOOR MICRO.
FAIRTOP FAST FLOOR MICRO is mixed applied by specialist mixer /pump. Measure 3.6 liters cool, potable water, into a suitable sized mixing vessel and mix full bag of FAIRTOP FAST FLOOR MICRO. Mix the composition for 3 to 5 mins. until a homogenous mix is observed. Mixing shall be carried out with a slow speed drill (400-500 RPM) fitted to a paddle attachment.
Pour the material, immediately after completion of mixing, on the dry, primed surface, spread with a trowel and allow to ‘self level’. The required thickness of 2-3mm must be achieved in one application, for better durability a sealer coat of SAFECORE PUD should be applied which increases abrasion. For best results, the pouring and leveling should be a continuous process. If complete flooring is to be done, material pouring shall be started from dead end. (From the farthest end of entry / exit location).
Note: If the mix stiffens, it should be discarded. Do not attempt to re-mix with water.
In normal conditions, FAIRTOP FAST FLOOR MICRO does not require curing, but in harsh climatic conditions of direct sunlight, drying winds etc., freshly hardened surfaces should be covered completely with a polythene sheet for 2 days.
Packing and Coverage
FAIRTOP FAST FLOOR MICRO is available in 18 kg HDPE bag. Coverage will be 1.8 kg/m² at 1mm thickness.
We express our sincere thanks for inviting us to Latitude59! and giving an opportunity to share our views and experience about E-residency and digitized business policy of Estonian government.
Fairmate a fast growing Indian multinational company having presence in throughout the world was looking to expand its manufacturing plants in Europe as well. Fairmate was looking for a better place to establish it’s headquarter in Europe. Estonia is very well known to us through our trading activities from there since last 10 years. In addition to that pleasant atmosphere, good infrastructure facilities, good climatic conditions highly ethical an friendly behavior of Estonian people attracted us make frequent journey to Estonia.
Gradually we could make good rapport with Estonia embassy in Delhi and with their wholehearted supports in various activities like visa, e-residency card etc. We could understand that Estonian (more…)
Concrete floor can truly result in an incredibly beautiful floor where unlimited self expression can be reached. Limited in industries till new, it is growing in popularity as more homeowners realize the fantastic benefits of concrete floors. Additionally, new processes and technologies have been developed to make concrete one of the most affordable and versatile flooring materials.
JUSTIFICATION FOR USE OF CONCRETE FLOOR COATING
We must remember that no other surface in a building takes more abuse than floors, regardless of the type of building, be it industrial or commercial. While a bare concrete floor can with stand tremendous weight and pressure, it is relatively porous and susceptibility to significant damage when left untreated or uncoated. If exposed to regular foot traffic or the demands of a commercial environment, concrete will readily absorb dirt, chemicals, oils and other spillages. This often results in stains, cracks and abrasions that can make the floor impossible to clean and unattractive in appearance. Hence all concrete floors need some sort of protection regardless of where they are located. Over the last few years, the protection of concrete floors has gone from essentially nothing to a fairly sophisticated process of some type of protective coating or surfacing. The main purpose is to provide protection to the slab from deterioration or contamination or to provide some added benefits such as aesthetics, wear, non skid, chemical resistance, ease of maintenance and different other properties. How to choose the protective material for concrete floor in different conditions? Whether you are constructing a new concrete floor or revamping an old one, there are different coatings you can choose to finish the project. We are focusing on coatings that are bonded directly to the surface and offer long term protection and may or may not have some aesthetic value. Typical coatings that are mostly used for concrete floors include acrylics, polyurethane, epoxy, or specialized elastomeric liquid membrane coating etc. However, before applying any new coatings to your floor just make sure that the ingredients are free from any chemical reactions that can cause significant damage to the floors. Industrial epoxy floor coatings are beneficial in order to maintain a safe, durable concrete surface besides proving it with a new and improved look.
The first step in the selection process is to evaluate the existing surface to determine what you are working with. The surface must be structurally sound, clean and must not be contaminated with any foreign material that could interfere with the bond of a new coating system. This includes concrete curing compounds.
Other critical things to consider are: is the surface distressed in any way? Does it have cracks, spills, or unevenness? Does the coating system required a level floor or one that slopes to a drain? What type of surface preparation is needed for the area in question? It is the most important step in the installation process and is critical to long-term performance of the total system.
Chemical exposure: Severity of the exposure and types of chemicals are both very important. Materials differ widely in chemical resistance, making identifying the exposure very important. Common splash and spills also are far less critical than constant immersion.
Abrasion: The amount of wear or traffic on a surface will make important criteria. Are there steel wheel or rubber wheel.
FAIRMATE | In technical collaboration with M/s. RBP Ltd. UK 3
Impact and Thermal shock: Heavy loads and direct impact require a heavier build or thicker floor system. Temperature fluctuation or thermal shock, such as steam cleaning of the floor surface, will cause a loss of bond from thermal expansion if the floor system is not chosen properly.
Economy is the top requirement. At times, low cost systems will prevail at the expense of more durable systems. Generally when other parameters are exhausted, you get what you pay for. Another generally accepted rule is that the thicker the applied system, the better the performance.
APPLICATION AND POST APPLICATION
Once the surface has been leveled the material must be applied and the job inspected and approved. The choice of an appropriate contractor to install the system is just as important as the material used. A contractor trained to install a particular system. The job does not end with the application of material. A long term review, maintenance and repair programme. Should be established for continued performance and satisfaction. Post application, even the most durable surface might show areas of distress in future that may require attention. A small amount of attention before installation will prolong the life of a flooring system. The whole project is to create a low maintenance situation, so spending more money on the best materials and the extra time spent on preparation time is well worth it.
POLYURETHANE BASED TOUGH ELASTOMERIC WATERPROOFING MEMBRANE
Waterguard PU Liquid Membrane is a pitch extended polyurethane based elastomeric coating, formulated to give long lasting, maintenance free, and superior waterproofing protection for concrete and steel structures.
Chemical resistant: Resists deterioration from dilute acids and alkali, oil, salts, bacteria, and common fuels.
Single component, Easy to apply.
Applied by roller, brush, or airless spray.
Tenacious adhesion and high elastic recovery.
Long term resistance to ponded water.
High elongation, permits membrane to stretch with movement in the substrate.
Excellent crack bridging properties.
Continuous monolithic (seamless) layer completely bonded to the substrate, eliminates horizontal migration of water between membrane and the substrate. Thus if the membrane is punctured, a leak can only occur directly below the damaged section of the membrane, allowing fast location and inexpensive repairs.
Waterguard PU Liquid Membrane is used as a waterproofing or vapor barrier for protection of Foundations & Basement, Ground floors, Kitchens & bathrooms, Split slab, Terraces, balconies & patios, Car Park decks, Inverted roofs & sunken slabs, Tunnels.
Surface must be structurally sound, clean dry and free from dust, grease, curing compounds, paint coatings, and other loose debris. Surface should ideally have a “sand paper” profile roughness. Recommended methods for preparing concrete are by sand or captive shot blasting; wire brushing or by pneumatic (scabbling) tools. Shrinkage and non structural cracks should be pre-treated with a 1mm thick coating of WATERGUARD PU LIQUID MEMBRANE reinforced with WATERGUARD GRS – fiber reinforce sheet extending at least 50mm on both sides of the crack. Allow to cure for 24 hours. Right angle or corner should have cant strips installed. A suitable cant strip can be prepared by mixing 1 part cement and 1 part fine clean sand and FAIRCRETE FBR additive. First apply 0.5mm thick WATERGUARD PU LIQUID MEMBRANE on the corners. Embed a 100mm width reinforcing WATERGUARD GRS – fiber reinforce sheet on the bedding coat then apply a second coat of WATERGUARD PU LIQUID MEMBRANE 0.5mm thick completely covering the reinforcement. Allow to cure at least 12 – 24 hours. Install mortar canting on the corners extending on both sides by 50mm. Allow cure for 24 hours prior to general application.
Normally WATERGUARD PU LIQUID MEMBRANE can be applied directly onto the surface and does not require priming.
The product requires thorough mixing (for at least 3 – 5 minutes) with a mechanical drill (300-400 rpm) fitted with a proprietor paddle prior to application so that a homogenous mix is achieved. Application should commence as soon as product mixing is completed. Apply the coating at 1.2 kg/m²/coat to achieve a dry film thickness of 1000 microns. The coating can be applied in either one or two coats. If applying in two coats ensure that the second coat is applied only after the first coat has become tack free. The second coat is recommended to be applied in the opposite direction to the first coat as this will allow the polyurethane in the mix to be distributed more uniformly. The coating will achieve its full mechanical properties after a period of 7 days.
HIGH PERFORMANCE HARDENER, STRENGTHENER AND DENSIFIER FOR CONCRETE FLOOR
Faircrete 17 is a silicate based clear liquid densifier when applied on concrete surfaces penetrates into the micro channels and seals against water and chemical attack and improves abrasion resistance.
• Superior in performance over Sodium based systems
• Seals micro-channels in concrete against water penetration and chemical attack.
• Hardens – making concrete stronger and abrasion resistant.
• Dust proofs-creating a cleaner, healthier environment.
• Permanent – One penetrating application.
• Easy maintenance. Makes cleaning easier. Reduces staining.
• Satin sheen to concrete.
FAIRCRETE 17 is used for surface hardening of new and old concrete to prevent dust generation and to reduce wear, particularly on exposed concrete. Typical areas of application include warehouses, factories, platforms, car parks, corridors etc., on both new and existing concrete surfaces.
The substrate shall be thoroughly cleaned of all foreign materials such as bond breakers, curing agents, form release oils, dust, construction laitance by light mechanical grinding if required. Clean the surface with a high pH detergent and wash thoroughly. The surface shall be saturated with water and later excess water has to be removed.
A low pressure, high volume sprayer shall be used to apply FAIRCRETE 17 so as to form a glistening sheen and to ensure complete saturation of the surface. Enough FAIRCRETE 17 shall be applied to keep the surface wet for at least 20 minutes.
If applying by hand, spread the sprayed material with a lambs wool roller once or twice and then stop spreading. If spread excessively, it tends to dry in streaks. After 20 minutes, the excess material shall be removed and the surface shall be allowed to dry for 1 – 2 hrs. The floor is ready to use after the surface is dry. A light lithium residue may form on the surface after the floor is dry. This is the excess FAIRCRETE 17 liquid floor hardener which was not absorbed and can be removed by a stiff broom or power sweeper. For an immediate shine, FAIRCRETE 17 shall be allowed to dry overnight and then polished with a high speed buffer equipped with a black pad, followed by a red pad.
Sealing / Overcoating / Striping:
The treated surface can also be painted for striping as there will be no chemical incompatibility between FAIRCRETE 17 treated surface and these paints.
Floors treated with FAIRCRETE 17 benefits from good routine maintenance. Regular scrubbing with a high pH detergent is recommended and can increase the shine. Tyre marks can be removed with a citrus type of cleaner. Oils and acids should be removed properly to prevent damage.
Packing and Coverage
Packing : FAIRCRETE 17 is supplied in 20 & 200 ltr containers.
Coverage : Spray applied – 10 – 12m² per Ltr on power trowelled surfaces. On textured surfaces the coverage will be much lower.
SEGMENTAL CONCRETE BRIDGE BONDING
FAIRMATE supplied the concrete admixtures and other products for the precast and insitu concrete works on this structure, and now we develop a high strength epoxy resin adhesive system, to bond the joints between the precast concrete segments.
The Successful combination of new pre-stressing systems with new assembly equipment led to the development of the precast segmental construction method for bridges. The most important first developments were probably in 1940s, and it is now used by many of engineers, contractors, equipment producers and manufacturers around the world.
It has become established and used successfully on numerous large projects, including many of the world’s most important recent bridge structures.
FAIRBOND CS PRODUCTS – SEGMENTAL BRIDGE BONDING
FAIRBOND CS (S) & FAIRBOND CS (W) has been used extensively for a segmental bridge bonding construction applications, the need became clear for a specific range of segmental bridge adhesive which could meet the different and increasingly precise requirements of bridge designs and at the different working temperatures which occur during their construction periods. These included application in daytime temperatures of up to 45°C, curing during very low and cold night time temperatures, plus the rapid erection cycles demanded for the precast segments.
The FAIRBOND CS (S) & FAIRBOND CS (W) were the result – a range of adhesives, optimized for the specific technical requirements, suitable for use on the most challenging bridge projects. This is based on a reactive hardening epoxy binder system, with optimized filler granulometries, so that the products support the continuously optimized production process of segmental bridge construction.
The Fairbond CS (S) & Fairbond CS (W) (segmental bridge adhesive) range, which fully complies with FIP and AASTHO standards, but also to be able to meet the specific requirements of each construction site.
The application and characteristics of segmental bridge bonding products must be carefully matched so that the adhesive can meet the following requirements:
• To bond the surfaces so that compressive and shear forces also the tensile forces can be safely convey from to every bridge segment.
• To lubricate the joint faces between the segments to make them easier to finally position together during their installation.
• To seal the joints between the segments against future ingress of water and de-icing salts etc,i.e. to protect the prestressing cables against corrosion.
THE PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
In order to meet all these requirements under the different site application conditions, including variable temperatures/ moisture contents/ mixing and application methods etc., the epoxy adhesive must have carefully selected precisely defined characteristics and test methods to confirm these.
The table below contains the main criteria covered by “International Federation of Prestressing” FIP (now developed as fib “Federation international de beton) and AASTHO (American Association Of State Highway and Transportation Officials), which have also shown the FAIRBOND CS products specification.
FAIRBOND CS (S) & FAIRBONDS CS (W) PROPERTIES
Below Technical properties of FAIRBOND CS (S) & FAIRBOND CS (W) meets the FIP & AASTHO properties:
Colour : Grey
Specific Gravity : 1.60±0.05
Pot Life : 30 minutes at 30 ºC
Open Time : 60 minutes at 30 ºC
Application Temp. : 15ºC – 30ºC
Thixotropy : No sag at 2mm build.
Squeezability : Meets the requirement
Comp. Strength : 40 N/mm²@1 days
75 N/mm²@7 days
Tensile Strength : Concrete Failure
Strength : 13 N/mm²
EPOXY JOINTING ADHESIVE
Purposes of Epoxy
The purposes of using an epoxy resin in the joint between the segments are:
• To maintain the structural integrity of the joint and maintain a monolithic concrete segment
• To completely fill any minor surface imperfections and irregularities between the match cast surfaces
• To provide a water and grout tight seal, preventing chloride intrusion
• To act as a lubricant when erecting the segment
• To ensure tight fit between the segments so that the compressive and shear stresses are transmitted directly across the joint
TYPES AND APPLICATION OF EPOXY
Epoxy comes in two part compounds consisting of a resin and hardener. When mixed together, they begin curing which can take anywhere from a few minute to a few hours, depending on the formulation, the site and storage temperature and the mass of the epoxy, The cure time will be shorter when epoxies are mixed in higher temperature conditions and in larger masses.
Segmental bridge epoxies are specially formulated as either normal or slow setting resins. For Segment by segment erection, the normal set epoxies are used and for span by span erection, the slow set epoxies are used. It is important to use the correct pot life and correct temperature range to ensure good working time and proper strength gain of the epoxy.
Concrete should be mechanically sound and free form contamination such free water, mould oil, grease, laitance or dust. A dry grit blasting on the surface is recommended for optimum adhesion. Sections to be checked for good alignment. A ‘dry run’ before the first application of the adhesive is recommended to ensure correct timing.
The contents of hardener should be added in to the base and mixed for 2-3 minutes with a paddle attached slow speed heavy duty drill. It should be ensured that the sides and base of the can is thoroughly scrapped down. A uniform grey colour should be obtained after homogenous mixing.
The mixed adhesive should be applied at required thickness to both laying surfaces with a serrate trowel or other suitable spreader. The joint should be closed immediately. If this is not achieved the surface of the adhesive should be slightly scratched immediately prior to closing the joint to be exposed fresh adhesive. The joint must be closed within the open time of the adhesive. On site monitoring of the operation using lapped asbestos cement panels is recommended.
When the segments are brought together and stressed, excess epoxy is squeezed out. For joints over traffic or water, procedures must be implemented to avoid dropping below. Once the segments has been joined and stressed, all excess epoxy should be cleaned. If leaving it to harden will make it more difficult to remove later on.
Tools and equipment should be using SAFECORE TOOL CLEANER immediate after use.
SHELF LIFE AND STORAGE
FAIRBOND CS (W) & FAIRBOND CS (S) will have a shelf life of 12 months in un-opened containers when kept in dry conditions at a temperature 5 0c to 30 0c. Storage at higher temperature or high humidity may reduce the shelf life.
HEALTH AND SAFETY
FAIRBOND CS (W) & FAIRBOND CS (S) is non-flammable. However, it should not come in contact with skin and eyes. If accidental skin contact occurs, remove immediately by washing with soap and water – Do not use solvent. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Avoid inhalation of vapors and ensure adequate ventilation. Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. Barrier creams provide additional skin protection. If swallowed seek medical attention immediately. Do not induce vomiting. For further information see SAFECORE Safety Data sheet.
Fairmate manufactures entire range of construction chemicals under compliance of ISO 9001, ISO (EMS) 14001 & OHSAS 18001 (Occupational Health and Safety) certified by ISOQAR / UK.
While new advances and changes will take place but one thing will never change is quality and meeting special needs of our customers. Our laboratory in Baroda and technical personnel & experts are available to provide additional information and technical assistance. We are eager to work with you in development of new product and resolve your problem.
ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CERAMIC TILE ADHESIVE
Fairfix TA Ultrais a polymer rich, cementitious tile adhesive for thin or thick bed fixing of ceramics tiles in interior or exterior situations and ensures excellent bonding on concrete and plasters conforming to BS 5980 TYPE 1 CLASS AA , BS 5385 PART 1 & IS:15477:2004.
• High adhesive bond strength.
• Excellent waterproofing characteristics.
• Non-slip and has excellent grab properties.
• Excellent tensile strength.
• Prepacked factory controlled.
• Ensures consistent quality.
• Easy to use.
• Waterproof immersion does not affect adhesion.
FAIRFIX TA ULTRA can be used for fixing tile on tile applications, ceramics, glass mosaics, swimming pools, bathrooms, kitchens, laboratories, canteens, etc. It provides strong adhesion to cement / sand screeds, concrete and brickwork. It is also suitable for substrate such as glazed tiles, terrazzo and suitably prepared timber.
All surfaces should be sound and thoroughly cleaned before FAIRFIX TA ULTRA is applied. All traces of greases or oil must be removed with degreaser. All loose particles of mortar must be physically removed.
FAIRFIX TA ULTRA can be applied directly on concrete, cement screeds, cement, lime mortars andexisting tiles. Timber surfaces should be checked to ensure rigidity and soundness to accept the additional loading without deflection. Provision must be made to ensure adequate ventilation beneath tiled timber flooring.
FAIRFIX TA ULTRA should be mixed with water in the ratio of 3:1 by volume. Place gauging water in a clean mixing vessel. Add powder and mix with a suitable stirrer or mixer mounted on slow speed electric drill until a plastic, lumps free consistency is achieved. Hand mixing may be allowed if drill/paddle is not available. Allow to stand for 5 mins before use.
Apply thin bond coat to the substrate with the straight edge of the trowel. Then comb mortar on to the fresh bond coat with the notched edge of the trowel working in the direction. Apply only that much mortar which can cover the tiles within the open time. Open time can be checked by touching the adhesive bed with fingertip.
Position tiles in the adhesive bed and align with a slightly pushing motion, ensuring the tile back achieves full contact with the adhesive.
Remove excess adhesive with a damp cloth before material has set. Joint grouting may be commenced24 hours after tiles have been laid.